“The acid further works to promote the formation of the chromium-rich passive film, which imparts the corrosion resistance quality. Whereas pickled steel will appear dull or etched, passivation that is done correctly does not affect the metal’s appearance.”
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This pickling agent is only effective if the oxide skin is very thin. Thicker oxide layers require the addition of fluoride to the phosphoric acid solution. Pickling in phosphoric acid causes a phosphate coat to form that can serve as a primer for a coat of lacquer or paint. The phosphate coat is a conversion coating with improved adhesive properties.
Regeneration of acids and the recovery of metals from spent acids solutions after the stainless steel pickling process. Reducing the emission of nitrates in the waste water. Avoiding the need for land-filling of acid-metal residues in special landfills. Producing reusable by-products.